Introduction Participant observation, for many years, has been a hallmark of both anthropological and sociological studies. In recent years, the field of education has seen an increase in the number of qualitative studies that include participant observation as a way to collect information. Qualitative methods of data collection, such as interviewing, observation, and document analysis, have been included under the umbrella term of "ethnographic methods" in recent years. The purpose of this paper is to discuss observation, particularly participant observation, as a tool for collecting data in qualitative research studies.
In fact, the methods are largely limited by the imagination of the researcher. Here I discuss a few of the more common methods.
Participant Observation One of the most common methods for qualitative data collection, participant observation is also one of the most demanding. It requires that the researcher become a participant in the culture or context being observed.
The literature on participant observation discusses how to enter the context, the role of the researcher as a participant, the collection and storage of field notes, and the analysis of field data. Participant observation often requires months or years of intensive work because the researcher needs to become accepted as a natural part of the culture in order to assure that the observations are of the natural phenomenon.
Direct Observation Direct observation is distinguished from participant observation in a number of ways. First, a direct observer doesn't typically try to become a participant in the context.
However, the direct observer does strive to be as unobtrusive as possible so as not to bias the observations. Second, direct observation suggests a more detached perspective.
The researcher is watching rather than taking part. Consequently, technology can be a useful part of direct observation. For instance, one can videotape the phenomenon or observe from behind one-way mirrors. Third, direct observation tends to be more focused than participant observation.
The researcher is observing certain sampled situations or people rather than trying to become immersed in the entire context. Finally, direct observation tends not to take as long as participant observation. For instance, one might observe child-mother interactions under specific circumstances in a laboratory setting from behind a one-way mirror, looking especially for the nonverbal cues being used.
Unstructured Interviewing Unstructured interviewing involves direct interaction between the researcher and a respondent or group.
It differs from traditional structured interviewing in several important ways. First, although the researcher may have some initial guiding questions or core concepts to ask about, there is no formal structured instrument or protocol. Second, the interviewer is free to move the conversation in any direction of interest that may come up.
Consequently, unstructured interviewing is particularly useful for exploring a topic broadly.
However, there is a price for this lack of structure. Because each interview tends to be unique with no predetermined set of questions asked of all respondents, it is usually more difficult to analyze unstructured interview data, especially when synthesizing across respondents.
Case Studies A case study is an intensive study of a specific individual or specific context. For instance, Freud developed case studies of several individuals as the basis for the theory of psychoanalysis and Piaget did case studies of children to study developmental phases.
There is no single way to conduct a case study, and a combination of methods e.By Dr. Montessori's methods had traveled all over the world and she had even certified teacher trainers to train teachers. But because there were was no oversight in these first training centers, the courses were shortened and the miracles that had been discovered in the Casa dei Bambini were no longer occurring.
Induced Abortion Methods & Risks. Descriptions of abortion methods commonly used for each trimester of pregnancy are provided below. A list of references for the information is also included.
Child-centered teaching methods enhance early childhood physical education Excerpted from Early Steps Physical Education Curriculum by Ian Pickup. Module 2: Methods of Data Collection - Chapters 2 On-line Lesson. Leisure Research Methods.
Once a research question has been determined the next step is to identify which method will be appropriate and effective. Techniques Of Data Collection,Methods Of Data Collection,Social Survey,Data Collection Techniques,Data Collection Methods,Data Collection,Sampling,Sampling In Data Collection.
There are a wide variety of methods that are common in qualitative measurement. In fact, the methods are largely limited by the imagination of the researcher.