Probably India did not have a clear local name earlier because, like Chinait seemed to be the principal portion of the entire world, and so simply the world itself. Sumeru or Meruthe only one inhabited with humans identical to us.
France retreated from Syria and Lebanon in after numerous catastrophic engagements with local peoples. The British withdrew from Palestine inleaving behind the new state of Israel, which was carved out of a large portion of Palestine; from most of the rest was created Jordan.
A series of treaties and agreements led to British withdrawal from Egypt and Iraq; as a result of one of these agreements, Sudan also gained independence.
While the formal empires of European countries seemingly disintegrated in the s, the former colonial powers, now joined by the United States, continued to maintain a presence in the region. Britain and the United States focused on controlling the production of oil.
Such interests now had the added dimension of being pursued within the larger framework of geopolitical tensions created by the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Indeed, the independence process has been very complex in the Middle East. To understand the form the processes of independence and decolonization took in the Middle East, one has to begin in the nineteenth century.
The British, the French, and the Ottomans had varying degrees of control in different parts of the region; throughout the region, a strong nationalist sentiment opposed this foreign control. During the second half of the nineteenth century, the ideal of autonomy was disseminated by such organizations as the National Party in Egypt, the Young Ottomans and then the Young Turks in the Ottoman Empire, secret Arab societies in Beirut and Damascus, and the Young Tunisians.
During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, such groups began to organize nationalist demonstrations; some directly challenged the imperial rule of the British, the French, and even the Ottoman Turks. Arab nationalism became popular among intellectuals in Greater Syria; Turkish nationalism also grew, with its own ideas about how national communities ought to be formed.
In Iran, different currents of nationalism imagined different futures for the country. Throughout the region, the relationship between colony and metropole the colonizing power deeply affected the intellectual, ideological, and material development of both.
For example, the more the French sought to gain materially from Algeria, the more resistance developed among the Algerians. Over time, this resistance coalesced into a sense of nationalism that was completely at odds with the political reality of being colonized, that is, existing only for the betterment of the colonizer.
Feelings of political identity, economic identity, geographic identity, and religious identity coalesced into a powerful force. This force, on the one hand, forged powerful bonds, and on the other hand, made Middle Easterners see themselves as distinctly different from Europeans.
Some of the earliest attempts to achieve independence, or at least self-determination, occurred in the context of World War I. In the British promised independence to Hussein ibn Ali, the emir of Mecca and sharif of the Hashemite family, if he would help them against the Ottomans.
At the conclusion of the war, Britain and France divided various portions of the Middle East into new territories called mandates, with the ostensible rationale of mentoring these mandates as they progressed toward independence.
In reality, they used their powerful position as a way to advance their own interests, thus earning the resentment of Arabs. For much of the nineteenth century the various nationalist groups mentioned above, and others like them, organized and in some cases fought against imperial rule—not only against the British and the French, but also against the Ottoman Turks.
In the Arab countries, nationalism, which originated among educated elites, spread increasingly to all sectors of society as the promised self-determination failed to appear and occupation and colonial control continued. In Turkey and Iran, nationalist movements began gaining strength in the late nineteenth century and modern states began to emerge in the s.
Over the course of the twentieth century, decolonization took varying forms in these disparate areas, as did the new states and societies that emerged. The term Arab is fraught with historical difficulties; today it usually refers to a person whose language is Arabic.
Equally difficult is the phrase Arab nationalism; this can be used both as an equivalent to Pan-Arabism and more specifically to refer to independence struggles in Arabic-speaking countries.
The s and s witnessed a growing sense of Arab identity. Inthe Arab National Congress demanded governmental autonomy for the Arab provinces of the ailing and loosely consolidated Ottoman Empire.
Calls for greater autonomy were also directed at the British and French, whose influence and control were well established, but deeply resented by the Arabs.Decolonization and Nationalism in Indonesia, Vietnam, India & Pakistan Chapter 23 / Lesson 9 Transcript Video.
Published: Fri, 28 Apr 1. Introduction. In the story of the fall of the British Empire the decolonisation of India in August plays a mayor role. It not only stimulated further movements of decolonisation in Asia, India’s gain of independence is also commonly considered to be the beginning of the end of British dominance in world politics.
French India was integrated into India between and , and India annexed Portuguese India in , and the Kingdom of Sikkim in Violence, civil warfare and partition [ edit ] Significant violence was involved in several prominent cases of decolonization of the British Empire; partition was a frequent solution.
The seven committees in the Economic and Social Council and Regional Bodies at HMUN India include the medium-sized councils, commissions, and programmes of the UN, which tackle issues of development, human rights, culture, economics, and trade.
The invading army reached the outskirts of Rome, which had been left totally undefended. In C.E., the Visigoths, led by Alaric, breached the walls of Rome and sacked the capital of the Roman Empire..
The Visigoths looted, burned, and pillaged their way through the city, leaving a wake of destruction wherever they went. Transcript of Decolonization in india The Decolonization of India by Piyali Pramanik and Tiffanie Jacob India was colonized by Great Britain.
India became a British colony after the Nawab of Bengal and his French allies lost the Battle of Plassey in to Britain.