What is the NP Role?
Mokdad, PhD; Patrick L. Measuring health behaviors in populations. Prev Chronic Dis ;7 4: Efforts to improve public health require information on the prevalence of health behaviors in populations — not only to target programs to areas of most need but also to evaluate the effectiveness of intervention efforts.
These data provide estimates at the national and state level but often require multiple years of data to provide reliable estimates at the local level. With changes in telephone use eg, rapid decline in the ownership of landlinesinnovative methods to collect data on health behaviors, such as in health care settings or through Internet-based surveys, need to be developed.
Back to top Introduction Efforts to improve community health at the national, state, and local level require detailed and accurate information about the prevalence of health behaviors If existing data collection systems are to remain viable, current approaches to measuring population health behaviors must be adapted.
Potential solutions address the challenges of nonresponse, coverage, data quality, sample size, and costs. Later updated by Mokdad 5these studies concluded that approximately half of all deaths in the United States could be attributed to factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, poor diet, and alcohol use Table 1.
Public health campaigns were established that educated the public about the need for healthy lifestyles and supported health-promoting programs and policies.
These changes contributed to major declines in heart disease, stroke, and injury deaths 6. Telephone surveys emerged as a feasible method to assess the prevalence of many health risk behaviors among populations 7.
BRFSS collects information on health risk behaviors associated with the leading causes of illness and death 9. Back to top Reasons for Measuring Health Behaviors The measurement of health behaviors in populations is useful for both program planning and program evaluation.
For program planning, estimates of the prevalence of behavioral risk factors can be used to set priorities or to compare rates across communities.
For example, to provide more reliable estimates, the Wisconsin County Health Rankings combines 7 years of data from BRFSS to compare the rates of behaviors across all the counties in the state In contrast, more precise measures are needed when evaluating changes in health behaviors over time.
Efforts to reward communities for improved health outcomes 11 would require precise estimates of health behaviors so that incentives could be closely linked with the implementation of programs or policies.
Back to top Methods to Measure Health Behaviors in Populations Several methods exist to assess behaviors in a target population. The choice of methods is usually a function of cost due to time and personnel.
Ideally, a census would be the optimal means of collecting data. However, censuses are not conducted frequently enough to enable timely data for planning.
Hence, surveys are often the best mode of data collection. Advances in sampling techniques and software availability have rendered surveys the workhorse for behavioral assessment. Several modes are useful for collecting survey data: The mode dictates whether the data are self-reported, observed, or measured.
Five components determine the quality of a survey: Adequate coverage is achieved when the sampling frame includes all units of the population of interest. If the list of population units is incomplete, frame coverage errors result.
Challenges to coverage vary by survey mode. Usually, sampling frames for face-to-face surveys are expensive to develop, whereas telephone sampling frames are challenging because of the use of cellular phones and number portability area codes are no longer associated with a specific geographic location.
On the other hand, Web sampling frames are not yet comprehensive. Adequate sampling is achieved when each element on the sampling frame has a known and nonzero probability of selection.
This protects against sampling bias and enables the researchers to quantify sampling error. Again, this error varies by survey modes.Rimmel Lasting Finish Lipstick gives instant high colour impact that lasts all day long. Turn heads and break hearts with this range of 13 stunning colours.
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